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What is information technology? Developments, types and applications

What is Information technology? 

Information technology is the process of creating, storing, transferring, perceiving information and methods for implementing such processes.

Most people equate the concept with computer technology, because with their help, IT began to develop faster.

Despite the fact that the concept of information technology is considered identical to the concepts of a computer. And a computer network, the use of the IT concept itself cannot be limited to computers only.

Information technology consists of components such as:

  • software tools – applied and system;
  • organizational and methodological support;
  • IT technical means.

What are IT tools

Information technology means are types of computer technology, with the help of which information is searched, processed and transmitted.

They are needed in order to speed up and facilitate the execution of a number of tasks.

There are three types of IT tools:

  • computing – automated devices for collecting and processing information;
  • organizational – different types of equipment for performing technical tasks;
  • communication – appliances: laptops, computers, smartphones, tablets and other devices.

The average person uses only communication means in their daily life. Computing and organizational devices are designed for solving important tasks by IT specialists.

Information technology development stages

It is believed that information technology began to develop after the advent of computers. But in fact, their history goes back far back to primitive times, when people shared data using rock paintings.

Consider the main stages in the development of information technology:

  1. Manual IT (from ancient times to the second half of the 19th century) . The main tools of information technology at that time were a pen, a book, and an inkwell.

Interaction between people took place by sending letters, and its main purpose was to convey information (what is this?) To the addressee in such a way that he understood what they wanted to tell him.

  1. Mechanical IT (from the end of the 19th century to the present). The instruments here are dictaphones, telephones, typewriters, and a modern post office. The purpose and methods of communication are the same, but in a more convenient form.
  2. Electrical IT (1940s to 1960s). This era is characterized by the appearance of the first computers and software (what is it?) Electric typewriters, portable voice recorders. The emphasis of information technology has shifted from form to content.
  3. Electronic IT (from the 1970s to the present). The computers of that time were becoming perfect, automated control systems (ACS) and information retrieval systems (ISS) were created. The emphasis is on creating meaningful information.
  4. Computer IT (from the 1980s to the present). The main tool of this technology is a personal computer (PC) with a set of software for performing tasks for various purposes.

Automated control systems are being personalized, household appliances, communications and office equipment are being automated, local and global computer networks are being developed. Humanity is increasingly involved in the development of IT, new professions related to the industry appear.

Classification (types) of information technology

Currently, there are several signs by which information technologies are classified.

Among them:

  • way of implementation in AIS (automated information systems);
  • the extent to which management tasks are covered;
  • classes of technological operations;
  • type of user interface (everything that we see on the screen of a computer, tablet, smartphone);
  • options for using networks of electronic computers;
  • subject area;
  • other.

Let’s go through most of the above signs in more detail.

Classification by the way Information Technology is implemented

According to the method of implementation, information systems can be divided into the following types:

  • Traditional. They existed before computer technology became popular. Their main task was to reduce the labor intensity of users and help with the implementation of complex tasks.
  • Modern. The main task is to provide effective management in real time.

Classification according to the degree of coverage of management tasks

Speaking about the degree of coverage of management tasks, there are several types of IT:

  • electronic data processing;
  • automation of control functions;
  • decision support;
  • electronic office;
  • expert support.

Classification by types of performed technical operations

IT is divided into types such as:

  • work with text and table processors, graphic objects;
  • System database management;
  • hypertext and multimedia systems (in particular, computer graphics).

Types of IT by type of user interface

There are several types of information technology according to this classification:

  • batch – excludes the influence of users on data processing in automatic mode;
  • interactive – allows the user to interact with information resources practically without restrictions;
  • network – provides means of access to distributed information and computing resources;
  • integrated – combining various types of IT into a single system.

Classification by subject area served

According to the subject areas served, information technologies have different classifications. This is such a large view that you need to create an entire article to fully describe it.

For example, only in economics can one single out accounting, insurance, tax activities and much more.

Information Technological application in everyday life

We have already talked about concepts such as information technology, and learned why they are needed. Each of us is faced with IT in everyday life: they make our life easier and more fun.

Information systems and technologies are usually used for the following purposes:

  • entertainment: watching movies, listening to music, reading books, playing computer games;
  • gaining access to information, viewing news, receiving data;
  • communication in social networks, instant messengers (how is it?), chats, e-mail (how is it?) and on a cell phone;
  • training: webinars (what is that?), reference books, online lessons, textbooks in electronic format;
  • information processing: graphic editors, programs for calculating data, creating software, processing sound, video, and so on.

Read also: How to Choose the Right EMR Software the First Time?

That’s all, dear friends. I tried to reveal in simple words the concept of information technology, to explain what it is and why it is necessary.

I hope that after reading the article, you will not have any questions. Otherwise, you can ask them in the comments and get a response from me or other readers of the KtoNaNovenkogo.ru blog.

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